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● Reference

ㆍNewborn < 1.9 or 2.5cm
ㆍSchool age < 3.7cm

● Penile size was increased in the 2011 preliminary study than 1987 study (233 boys).

● Measurement

▶ Getting a correct penile measurement is very important because a diagnosis of micropenis really hinges on the size.

▶ Conventional methods
   using ruler or calipers
   grasping the glans exclude fat pad and foreskin measuring from pubic ramus to the tip of the glans

▶ Stretched penile length (SPL)

Schonfeld WA et al. J Urol 1942;48:759-77
Park S et al. Korean J Urol 2012:53:870-4

measuring from pubic ramus to the tip of the glans in order to exclude the fat pad and foreskin grasping and gently pulling glans pushing suprapubic area (to feel discomfort) (No pain)

● Etiology

▶ Etiological evaluation

Aslan TB et al. Indian J Pediatr 2014;81:775-9

ㆍMicropenis : 45 patients (69%)  Hormonal abnormality : 29 patients (44%)

Misdiagnosis in referring hospital : 20 patients (31%)

- buried penis due to obesity
- erroneous measurement of SPL
- lack of knowledge on population standards for penile length

● Diagnostic workup

▶ In children and preadolescent

ㆍTesticular size
ㆍChromosome analysis (karyotype)
ㆍBone age (left wrist X-ray)
ㆍTanner stage